You can make a strong concrete design only in the presence of high-quality formwork. A formwork for stairs makes it possible to create a practical, wear-resistant fabric with the possibility of subsequent registration of various materials.
Types of stairs and types of formwork
A formwork with your own hands is the most difficult and time-consuming part of the installation. The type of staircase structure and its shape affect the size and materials for formwork.
A staircase for porch or between the two walls is the most ordinary case. Then a side formwork for stairs is not required; the contours of the structure are easily noted on the walls with following fastening of parts. The assembly of a formwork with your own hands should start with the markup. The lines must be clear and visible, and the calculations should be accurate.
The simpler the future staircase is – the less you will have to fiddle with the installation and assembly of the formwork; the decorative effect of the design may include the finishing, carved and forged elements, unusual color and shape of the steps.
Rectangular one-step cloth is also considered relatively easy for self-installation. The timbering of such design should include additional face (lateral) surface with several support.
Materials for formwork
The main task of the formwork is to give the necessary shape to the concrete structure. The panels installed along the contour should contribute to the formation of a future staircase for the porch. It is recommended to make a choice among such materials:
1. Wood. Planed boards – the easiest and most economical option. Such flaps can be quickly made with your own hands. The only disadvantage is that wooden formwork can be used only for straight steps. It is important to remember that the side which adjoins concrete has to be preliminary planed, and humidity of boards shouldn’t be less than 25% (boards can be put briefly in water).
2. Metal. Steel and aluminum formwork, galvanized iron elements are suitable for round and semicircular porch, they can be used to fill the stage of arbitrary shape. The disadvantages of metals can be attributed to their relatively high cost and complexity in processing.
3. Plywood and lining. Both materials are flexible, which greatly facilitates their use in the formation of round steps. When you arrange a porch with your own hands, it is recommended to make preparations of the corresponding sizes.
If you want to fix a contour for a concrete staircase, you should use trimming of boards and nails. The shields are hammered into the ground and propped up by small wedges.
Stage-by-stage design of a concrete porch
The complexity and duration of work largely depend on the design and size of the future porch. The algorithm will be approximately as follows:
• site layout;
• digging a hole to the right depth, the bottom of which is filled with gravel or sand (15-20 cm) and compacted;
• cutting blanks for the casing;
• construction of the formwork;
• installation of stakes and panels (clapboard and plywood should be further propped up with the bricks);
• the nearest section of the house and the foundation is applied with waterproofing coating (it makes it possible to avoid deformation of structures due to the different degree of shrinkage of the building and porch);
• reinforcement treads (wire mesh); during the manufacture of semi-circular steps with your own hands, you should take into account that the ends of the mesh will protrude beyond the edge of the steps, and they will need to be cut after concreting;
• concreting (step-by-step pouring is considered to be the best option, but hardening can take 3-5 days).
The formwork will make it possible to make presentable and durable porch with your own hands. According to the standards, you can begin to abrade the surfaces, and start facing in a month after the concreting.
Installation of formwork: useful tips
Supports and struts for the formwork should be very durable and reliable elements of the assembly; thickness of the beam largely determines the durability, so it is recommended to choose a sufficiently powerful beam – 50*100 and more.
Screws also have to be thick (from 3,5 mm), it is necessary to twist them to the maximum, so that the design wouldn’t incidentally disperse on seams because of mechanical damages or bad weather; the recommended depth of occurrence of screws is from 40 mm.
The perforated corners and other consumables are easily made with your own hands. It is necessary to drill apertures from both parties in the trimmings of corners – and the improvised “holes” for screws are ready.
The paint will help to cope with excellent moisture absorption of wood; it is recommended to paint a timbering properly so that wood wouldn’t absorb too much water from crude concrete.
The complexity of the assembly of the formwork puzzles many people who wish to equip their house with their own hands. Your advice will help to understand the intricacies of the installation of a staircase and save a lot of time and effort.