Climbing the stairs, no one thinks about how difficult it is to arrange it in your house. In addition to its primary purpose, it is of great importance for the overall interior space. The outer spans are the functional element of the system of the building, a connecting link between its interior and exterior. When selecting the appropriate ladder for the house you should know of what design they are.
- 1 The main components of a staircase
- 2 Types of ladders
- 3 The materials used in the manufacture of staircases
The main components of a staircase
- The steps. They are placed horizontally, they are called treads and the vertical plate, at which at one end of thread rests, is called risers.
- String. Beams set in an inclined position and which are a basis.
- The open strings. Surfaces, placed vertically and resting against a string. At one end they join the feet.
Support pieces. These include stands in spiral staircases and rails in structures fixed to the wall.
- The railing. They are not used in all marshes. Functionally, handrails serve as a fall protection; in addition, they decorate the interior.
Types of ladders
The stairs are basically marching, spiral and on the rails.
These ladders for the house can be done with your hands. They can be straight, two-marching and multi-flight. Afford device in the house of the sustainer design is possible only in the presence of a large area. The number of marches and staircases depends on the height between floors.
When calculating the size of structures it is necessary to measure the height of the wall to which it is moved. Then you should create a right triangle, the legs of which are wall and floor, and hypotenuse is a flight of stairs.
The angle of inclination is best done at about 45 degrees. If there is no such angle, it is advisable to design double staircase.
Width depends on the size of the premises, the physique of the inhabitants of the house and their tastes.
According to the construction standards, a march should consist of ten steps.
If there are more of them, they should be split with staircase. Width is equal to width of stairs and length to match the average step of a person.
Installation of stairway
The arrangement depends on the dimensions of the room height between floors and aesthetic preferences of the house owner. Structurally, the main structures are divided into direct (only one) and a swivel that allow you to save useful space, for located along the wall. The stairs can be equipped with a closet or pantry.
The types of rotating stairs. They are divided into a quarter turn, half reverse, trapezoidal, rounded and combined.
Design features of the flight of stairs. They can be closed with pre-steps and risers, as well as an outdoor – only with pre-steps. In addition, there can be strings. They contain the string in the form of a saw. Stairs with closed strings are set very often, because they are easy to manufacture and can be quite long.
Helical design of stairs for a country house is appropriate in the case when the house has very little space. The dimensions of such structures depend on the size of the steps. The successful operation of the spiral requires space twice the length of its steps.
Moving up the stairs of this type is not exactly comfortable, its main advantage – compactness. In addition, it can give a special charm to the interior.
Features of installation of spiral staircases
The device of a spiral staircase is that support that can serve as a wide metal pipe, which can be put on the steps with the use of special gaskets. Thanks to design, such structures are open for the most part. The width of the stairs in the middle may not be less than 20 centimeters.
Staircases on bolts
Due to the fact that these constructions have no closed and open strings, they are very graceful, appearing to float in the air. The steps are fixed to the wall with pins, which are large bolts, mounted into the wall with one hand.
Staircases on bolts are quite durable, can withstand weight up to six tons. An indispensable element in the construction of railings will ensure safe operation.
The materials used in the manufacture of staircases
Most of the internal stairs are made of wood of firm breeds. When choosing wood you need to remember about the properties of each of them.
- The maple wood can crack over time and turn yellow.
- Beech does not tolerate moisture, may be deformed.
- Oak has the ability to absorb oil, leaving the wood unsightly marks.
- Pine should not be used at all, as its wood is very resinous, soft, prone to damage.
- Larch good for stairs, rot proof.
- Cherry and pear are very strong and not prone to mechanical damage can be an excellent material for stairs.
A very popular metal. Best choice is stainless steel. Such designs are very durable and reliable, not prone to deformation and corrosion, are able to decorate any room.
For manufacturing steps, you can use stone, it can be granite or quartzite, because they are particularly durable and abrasion resistant. A good option could be the artificial stone for a nice balance of quality and price. Marble is not very suitable for making steps as it is rather soft and over several years may be purged.
Stairs with glass stairs look very stylish and fashionable. Glass for the manufacture of steps should be tempered or laminated, lightweight acrylic can also fit.
Outer staircase is an essential architectural element of any building and the link between the interior, exterior and landscape of the area.
Varieties of outdoor stairs
The original exterior stairs could be a real gem in the exterior of the house no matter what it is: a part of input design in the house, the connecting link between the floors, or it has a technical purpose.
Stairs can be divided into types according to criteria such as dimensions, methods of fixing to the joists, the detail of the design.
The number and kind of marches of the outer stairs are straight, double, multi-flight, rectilinear, curvilinear.
According the device in relation to the façade and entrance door, stairs are classified:
- Profile placed parallel to the facade.
- Front, perpendicular to the facade.
- Frontal – profile, of mixed type.
Technical requirements for external stairs
Regardless of the appointment, the external staircase shall be executed in accordance with technical standards, to ensure comfortable and safe use. It is possible to make it with your own hands.
You can build a porch in parallel with the construction of the house, it is permissible after the end of major construction works. The south side to the entrance, can be equipped with a wide staircase with a terrace; the northern side can do with the stairs of modest size. Stairs of technical purpose are pitched from the back side of the house in the same style with the house and landscape of the area.
External stairs should be erected on a separate foundation in the event that if the entrance is more than a meter above ground level. This will keep the ladder from shrinkage home.
Upon entering the building, consisting of several steps, it is enough to build a large porch made of concrete that is sustainable over a large area of contact with the ground.
The other parameters to the external stairs remain the same requirements as internal ones.
Suitable materials for the construction of external stairs
When selecting materials for exterior stairs you should keep in mind the climate. The material must be strong, wear resistant, moisture proof and frost resistant. Such qualities are possessed by brick, concrete, stone and metal, it is possible to use wood.
- Wooden external ladders are cheap enough they can be given a variety of intricate shapes so that they will adorn the house. All the trees of firm breeds fir for them.
- Exterior metal stairs are very durable, made from profile sheet, stainless steel or cast iron. Technological characteristics of metal make it possible to produce staircases of various types: straight, elliptical, spiral, of curved profile.
- Stone exterior stairs can be expensive and elegant or modest in appearance and price.
Monolithic stone stairs are not accessible due to exorbitant prices. You can build a staircase of concrete, brick or cinder block with your own hands, propping it up with porcelain tiles, clinker or natural or synthetic stone.
There are a lot of variants of the construction of the stairs, everyone can choose something to their taste and needs. However, all stairs should be safe to use, comfortable and durable.