28 Feb Testing ladders – requirements and conducting of the research
Step ladders and side marches facilitate the implementation of many high-rise works. However, it is necessary to comply with the requirements to their service to ensure the safety of their use. It includes regular testing of ladders. At the end of the audit a special act is formed according to the standards of GOST, the results are logged according to the protocol. Then we should consider how often and in what way the testing of ladders is carried out.
The frequency of inspections and testings
Regulatory documents standardize the frequency of testings. Requirements include three types of inspections:
- after manufacturing;
- in the process of operation;
- after the overhaul (this does not include staining of the product and such types of work).
The frequency of testing of industrial step ladders in the process of operation is once in a year. As for the rope and wooden models, the testing is carried out more often – once every six months. Security requirements include that the fire stairs are checked once a year and testing of ladders are held every five years.
How should assess the condition of structures?
It should be noted that inspection and testing of ladders and other structures are not the same things. Inspection involves the examination of the product, while the test includes the application of a static load. That’s why a special stand and all the results are entered in the log.
Verification starts with an inventory number. The manual shows that it should match the number that was previously entered in the accounting journal in Moscow. During the inspection the following indicators of ladders and other models are evaluated:
- The presence/absence of damaged, cracked or deformed parts.
- The state of the connection – their integrity and reliability.
- The presence of parts with sharp edges or burrs that can be traumatic.
- The stability of the structure.
Every fire arsenal always has a steel ladder. However, this metal is susceptible to corrosion that greatly reduces its strength. After completion of the inspection and testing, the steel ladders are coated with a rust inhibitor. You can use paint here.
While checking the sides of wooden structures you can detect cracks. They reduce the reliability of the design. The manual does not allow adjustment of adhesive or putty.
The testing of staircase construction
During the testing of stair designs, their bowstrings and steps experience static load. Its volume is determined depending on the characteristics of a particular model. If the part is not deformed, all requirements are met successfully, then the result will be logged.
When testing ladders or retractable structures, they are at an angle of 75 degrees to the horizontal surface. Then, a load of 120 kg is hung at one of the central beams and left for two minutes. Then the state of side marches is estimated, which is transferred to the register.
The manual of software testing of portable ladders requires installing them on a flat surface. The same load of 120 kg is hind to the step in the middle, and left for two minutes. Then the same procedure is carried out for the second knee of the ladder. If it is supporting and is not equipped with steps, the requirements ensure the reinforcement of the load 100 kg to the centers of both of the bowstrings.
You can compare the requirements according to the information in the following table
|Aluminium||Light weight with sufficient reliability, no corrosion, practical, ideal for household use||Relatively high price
|Duralumin||Quite durable material, reasonable price||Lower resistance than of aluminum and steel||An alloy of aluminium|
|Steel||High strength, reliability, suitable for professional ladders||Susceptibility to corrosion, steel structures have a larger weight than aluminum ones||Bolt connection or welding is used for attaching the treads to the supports of metal structures
|Wood||Easier to handle than metal, maintainability, you can make a ladder with your hands||Great weight of the finished product, exposure to the environment||During the manufacture of ladders you should draw attention to the absence of knots in the wood, you need lacquer coating for protection from external influences
The list of actions and requirements of standards of testing of ladders doesn’t end there. Testing of fiberglass dielectric ladders includes a minute load test voltage (1 kV to 10 mm long). If long march is divided into areas, this figure increases to 20%.
The final stage of testing according to All Union State standard
After the completion of the testing according to the standards of All Union State standard, all received data are logged, and the relevant act is formed. The documents should include the information about the conductor of the trials, the given to load, the presence of deformations and the period, where the next testing should be carried out.
If the structural elements are deformed in result of testing, there should be recorded some appropriate level recommendations. After repair, the load is given again. Such measures help to keep equipment in good condition. Leave a comment about your observations on testing of staircase constructions in Moscow or other regions.