Fire or emergency outbuilding should present in any home that is above one or two floors. But most often these stairs are almost not installed in private homes, and instead, the outer side constructions are used for evacuation. This is a big omission of owners of multistory premises because fixed fire extension is an important design that can save many lives.
Basic fire classification of buildings according to All-Union State Standard
All fire design by location divided into several types, namely:
- Internal. These products are constructed in the middle of the building. According to the norms of USS, besides the layout of the internal fire building, it is necessary to take into account the fact that it needs to be protected from all sides by walls of the great thickness of non-combustible material to protect people from smoke and fire.
- Outdoor. Such structures are normally constructed with an external side of the building and, as a rule, only up to the second floor. In older homes, the outside fire constructions are placed on the balconies. According to the norms of USS, in more modern buildings, a separate extension is constructed of metal that is mounted to the building. Access to it should be carried out by the back door on the floor.
Modern fire designs
Today, there are some kinds of fire structures, namely:
- Vertical fire design is straight stairs. They are great for two or three-story house. The only drawback of such products is small width, which makes inconvenient the simultaneous descent of a large number of people.
- Retractable design –straight stairs, which are mounted both on the facade and on the balconies.
- Marching fire facilities – outdoor products which are best suited for the evacuation of people. The only downside of these stairs is a large number of funds and space required for their construction, compared to other fire accessories.
- Manual fire products are portable devices that are used only during a fire.
The basic requirements for fire facilities
There are several requirements recorded in the USS, to the fire facilities of any kind, namely:
- Extension for evacuation obliged to take people out of the room into the street. It doesn’t have to end on the second floor or to the basement.
- It is forbidden to put locks, turnstiles, or other barriers on the evacuation constructions.
- Doors that lead to the evacuation annex should be opened without much effort and only on the outside.
- Doors leading to the fire annex should be made of such material that they could access any person.
- When placing fire-protection structures to the balcony, you should always keep a free passage to them, and you are forbidden to brew or lay the hatches between floors.
Free access to the escape ladder can save many lives.
All Union State Standard prescribes the technical requirements to fire safety constructions:
- Stairs, vertical extensions, the site must be made according to All-Union State Standard and according to regulated drawings.
- Fixing and installation of fire constructions need to carry out by the requirements of All-Union State Standard.
- The plane of the extension should be free of rust and corrosion and do not have sharp teeth or angles.
- According to All-Union State Standard, fire extension must be covered with paint and is treated with special products to protect against corrosion.
- All components of the product must be securely bonded to each other, and the extension is firmly attached to the facade of the building.
- Step ladders should withstand the load up to 180 kgs.
The main requirements for the size of the evacuation structures
All Union State Standard strictly regulate the size of the evacuation of the products depending on the type of construction.
- Product width – 60 cm and more.
- Width of the step is 20 cm and more.
- The height of a step, depending on the angle of inclination of 20 cm or 30 cm and more.
- Fence height not less than 1 m.
Vertical fire design:
- Product width – 60 cm and more to P1-1, 80 cm and more for P1-2. Construction fence must be wider than 60 cm, so people could calm down and not get stuck.
- For easy descent, the gap between the last stages and the ground should be no more than 150 cm.
- Boom P1-2 ends at the height of 250 cm from the ground.
- The width of the steps of the march – greater than 0.25 m.
- Length of a step is 0.9 m.
- The height of the protective fencing is 1.2 m.
Extra technical dimensions and parameters that apply to all types of fire additions:
- It is necessary to install fire built on the roof in the place where the difference in elevation is more than 1 m.
- There should be a distance of not less than 7.5 cm between fences and staircases.
- A platform for a vertical product, which is installed on the roof, must be greater than 80 cm.
- Buildings up to 20 m should be installed with fire design of type P1, while higher areas – with type P2.
- The last section of the products can be done in the form of a ladder.
Marking requirements evacuation structures
USS regulates mandatory marking on the evacuation of the product, which contains the following information:
- The date of production and installation facilities.
- Logo or full name of the manufacturer.
- The batch number and series of outbuildings.
- The parameters and the name of the device.
Test fire designs
All emergency products undergo constant testing for durability and safety. According to the regulations of All-Union State Standard, fire products should be tested one time per 5 years, and a visual examination should be carried out one time per year. The extra control should be carried out in case of the detection of small damages or defects an additional control.
Control fire construction occurs in several stages, namely:
- Arriving at the place of installation construction of the inspection company which has the necessary license and special equipment and tools. All work should be carried out during the day.
- Visual inspection of mounting and placement of evacuation design working drawings that were used during the production and installation of the product.
- Visual control of the quality of fire resistant and anti-corrosion surfaces that must have a class 5 protection.
- Measure all dimensions of the product with the help of special equipment. The obtained figures are recorded in the testing protocol.
- Measurement of the maximum permissible load on the steps (according to All-Union State Standard they must withstand 180 kg) is carried out through application to a load.
- Check the strength of the vertical structure is due to the flow of load beams that are in parallel.
- Check stairways is due to the upper load.
- Check grounds for resistance with the use of special load.
- Check handrails and booms by feeding the top load. Important! The load is set for a few minutes for the qualitative test. After the lifting of gravity, the design is check for the presence of deformations. Deformation is absent in safe and secure ladders.
- Visual inspection of welding joints and other planes in the absence of sharp edges and paint.
- The protocol of verification. This logs all actions and technical dimensions of the structure. The verification of the status of evacuation products is carried out based on the protocol on completion of the. Detection of marriage in the protocol notes that the construction is not verified.
- Transmission protocol in the fire service refers to the construction.
- After the test work, a ladder is hung up with a sign showing all technical parameters and the name of the testing organization.
Important! When not passing the design test on safety and reliability (if the stairs in public buildings are unsafe according to USS), the deadlines for the elimination of any defect should be found, and the access to the object should be closed.
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