Stairs are one of the most common items used in many buildings, both economical and residential. Going up and down, people do not think about the fact that its construction is a science, having a set of specific rules and building codes. Inter-floor stairs in a private home, inside stairs, spiral and straight — for each has its own technology and its parameters. In the photo you will see the most common and popular stairs.
Variety of flights of stairs
If there is a need for independent construction, we must not forget that the stairs should be safe and convenient to use.
According to its purpose marches are divided into:
- inter-level that is, leading from the lower to the upper level of a private home, including inside stairs;
- external (for example, at the cottage on the second floor);
- support – are used when you want to get into the basement or attic. They are mounted in the ceiling or side.
There are several types of stairs, including helical, straight ones, and the most used type is a cross between the two – turning (right photo). While choosing the structure, it is necessary to define the place where it is installed. A spiral design takes the least place in the room of all types of stairs.
Its levels are called winder and can be considered a disadvantage, as their width increases with distance from the center, so when going up and down, it is best to step into the center of the step.
In order of ease of movement in the staircase between the flights, there are established special platforms which allow you to relax while driving. Another function of such a platform in swivel design is mounting marches in any direction.
If you expand the marches by 90 or 180 degrees, it is possible to reduce the occupied turning staircase place. Such structures are called quarter-turn and half-curled, respectively.
Stairs have one or more flights. If marches with platforms go in different directions, it is called swing. Depending on where marches are rotated (counterclockwise or clockwise relative to each other), stairs can be of left or right types.
The construction should be guided by the basic requirements for the design of stairs:
- it should allow free movement of two persons, that is, the width of the steps of the march should be not less than 60 cm;
- height from any of the steps until the ceiling must ensure that the movement of a person in full length, i.e. not less than 2 metres between the ceiling and any of the steps;
- fencing must be not lower than 900 mm for safety.
The calculation of the basic parameters
The basic data in the calculation of a flight in order to provide comfort and safety when moving on the stairs are “averaged” data of a shoe size, height, width of the step. The height of a step (riser) should correspond to the step of a man.
If it is high – a man may stumble, small – they will have to do the uneven steps.
Standard size is used most commonly, and it is from 140 to 170 mm. tread width, or the width of the board steps should be convenient and safe to use both when climbing and when descending. People must reliably step foot on the step. Accept the default settings – 280-300 mm for convenience.
To determine the height of the riser, you must know the distance from the subfloor of the ground floor to the top of the ceiling, i.e., the height of the span. If calculating the size of the step, based on the height of the riser, it may not be an integer. Therefore, to obtain a correct result, the height of the stairs should be divided by an integer number of steps. The result is the height of the riser.
Now you can move on to the calculation of the width of the tread. There is the following pattern:
- 2A + b = 600-640 mm (a height of the riser, b – width of the tread).
Also, there are two formulas to calculate the optimal size of a step:
- b – a = 120 mm for ease of movement;
- b + a = 460 mm for safety.
When building stairs you need to find the optimal inclination, which depends on the ratio of the height and width of the steps. If the values are equal, the slope of the entire product will be 45 degrees, which is the maximum allowable value for frequently used stairs. For example, residential buildings “The golden mean” has the most comfortable and safe flight with a slope of 30-40 degrees. Premises used in business needs can do with side designs.
Treads of any stairs are mounted on two support beams. There are two kinds of pillars: open strings and closed strings. The stringers are the support for the steps. Notches are embedded or fastened by spikes in the bowstring. Stairs with stringers are easier for the construction.
Many materials can be used in the construction of stairs. So, stairs can be made of metal, wood, concrete, brick. The choice of material depends on the conditions under which the external environment will be used in this design. Metal, brick, concrete are used for the construction of external stairs. If the outer product is to use wood, the wood must be reprocessed.
The wood of different species and metal are mainly used for interior stairs. The more durable and fireproof material is metal. But constructing stairs from it is a more time-consuming process than from other materials.
Thus, based on the existing number of materials and styles, you can determine what kind of stairs for the house is right for your home. Write to us; ask questions, share opinions.