Not only apartment buildings, but private buildings often have more than one-floor height. The installation of staircases and platforms is needed to move between floors. This article provides basic ideas about the structural elements of the stairs, their characteristics, and All-Union State Standard.
Elements of stairs design
When you select a transition structure between floors, a man in the street often gives priority to the beauty and aesthetics of stair elements, but we should not forget that the structure of the staircase should first provide regulated All-Union State Standard utilitarian requirements, among which safety is paramount.
Structural elements of the stairs
- The main span type (March) – number of steps between sites.
- Platform rotary values – horizontal section area of the main spans.
- The open strings are a special basis for the stop of the steps.
- Risers — vertical elements of the stairs, closing the space beneath it.
- String — a solid wooden or metal beam that connects all stages of the march.
- Baluster – support on which the railings of the fence are mounted.
Materials for stairs
The price of the product and its characteristics depend on the materials of the staircase.
Marches and spans use:
- wood – the most common material from which it is easy to make stringers, steps and fences;
- metal – has the greatest strength;
- stone – durable and reliable in operation;
- glass – modern and original solution;
- concrete and reinforced concrete – “classics” of modern construction.
The main features of marches and platforms
According to All-Union State Standard, a march bias is 1:2 and 1:1.75 is the ratio of the height to the length of the step, the support is not steeper than 1:1,25. Steps in the march are the same, easy to walk on, their number – not less than three and not more than 18. Marches are most common from 10 — 13 degrees, this number is most convenient when lifting or lowering.
The width of the steps should ensure the production of complete feet (not less than 250 mm), height should be in the range of 130-200 mm. The fence of the grounds and marches is performed at the height of 0.9 m. The Width of the marches according to the All-Union State Standard is not less than 800-1000 mm, and the width of the site – not less than the same magnitude selected to march.
Depending on the material, there are derivatives for the construction of a ladder. They can be divided into two stages: the preparation of elements and assembling.
Specialists in the installation of staircases and platforms begin with planning a project, which visualizes the nuances of operations, the designing of the device parts and All Union State Standard.
According to the basis of the technical documentation, the items of the required size are purchased or manufactured: stringers, treads, platforms, and railings. They calculate the point of their fasteners and, if necessary, pre-assembly. At this stage, it is important to comply with the requirements of All-Union State Standard to the size and configuration of stairs.
The installation of the main elements
The fastener elements of the ladder also depend on the type of material that defines what characteristics should have the stringers and other components. Invariably one thing – the installation must provide rigid fixation of staircases and platforms to the supporting walls. Such is the price of safety.
Installation of fencing
The fence marches and platforms are one of the important components of the staircase. Its primary task is to provide security (to protect from falls) and ease of movement (to serve as a support when lifting or lowering).
- balusters – vertical or horizontal supports of the fence;
- filling – element fences performing a decorative function (due to decorating) and protective (limiting the space between the balusters).
The requirements for stair fences are regulated by All-Union State Standards according to which their height for interior stairs — not less than 90 centimeters. Fencing should be free of sharp edges and protrusions and have a refractory treatment.
There are specific requirements for stairs in institutions where there are children (schools or kindergartens). The design, according to All-Union State Standard should be such to protect kids: definitely, the device has additional handrails with a height of 50 centimeters. The maximum gap between balusters — 10 cm. If there are children in a private house, you should comply with these requirements of All-Union State Standard in the construction of stair railings.
There are various methods of fastening balusters railings of the marches and platforms: welding, concreting, fixing with screws: each material has its one, the correct solution. It is essential that the design of the stairs must be safe.
The collected information outlines major milestones of “stair-building.” Those who wish to learn more about narrow issues are invited to find answers on our resource or leave a comment with requests for disclosure topics. For example, more information about the requirements of All-Union State Standard to a flight of stairs has already been written in the relevant article.