Stairs are one of the main elements of the private houses with several floors. They not only perform their direct functions but also form a part of the interior. Staircases are divided into several types depending on their design and location. Types of staircase designs – which one to choose?
Design of the staircases
There are three types of staircases: spiral, flight and bolt. The components of all structures are as follows:
- the steps consist of a horizontal tread and a vertical riser;
- stringer beams – support of steps from below;
- racks (or bolts) – fastening parts of the steps;
- bowstrings – they are designed to support the staircase from the end and bottom;
- handrails on the sides of the steps – they are used for safety.
Steps can be made of almost any materials: different metals, glass, concrete, wood, stone, etc. The component parts of fences (handrails, bars, etc.) are usually made of wood, cast iron, bronze and marble. The choice of material depends entirely on the style of the structure itself and interior solutions of the whole house.
Of course, when planning and erecting the stairs of your own house, you must observe all general building principles and rules.
All steps must have the same width, length and height. You should accurately calculate the dimensions of the spans, the flights of the platforms and the angle of inclination to the floor surface. For example, in case of high angle of inclination, climbing and descending the stairs will be extremely inconvenient and dangerous, especially when carrying the bulky objects. Experts recommend observing an angle of 45-48 degrees.
It isn’t recommended to finish the steps with tile, as this reduces the safety of movement – cases of people falling from the tiled stairs are quite common.
Compliance with all basic criteria increases the safety of the stairs and ensures the conformity with the necessary requirements:
- the structure must withstand loads of at least 300 kg per 1m2 of steps;
- all materials used for construction must be fire-resistant; even wood should be treated with special agents;
- the presence of a slope of steps is excluded;
- the steps must have an anti-slip coating;
- during the construction, all calculations and ratios of parameters of the steps and other components must be strictly observed;
- the height of railings should vary between 80 and 85 cm;
- the width of the steps should be 20-30 cm;
- for the safety of small children, the distance between the balusters shouldn’t exceed 15 cm.
For safe movement up and down the stairs, you should consider equipping them with additional lighting.
Convenient staircase design
Every house owner dreams of a beautiful, presentable, and comfortable staircase. For maximum convenience, you should spend some time and efforts to calculate the size of the steps and their exact number, taking into account the dimensions of the entire room and the ceiling area.
The width of the steps depends not only on the size of the owner’s leg – it should be comfortable for any person. The height of the steps completely depends on the angle of the stairs to the floor surface and the dimensions of the room. However, in accordance with the standards, the height of every step must not exceed 17 cm.
The comfort of using the stairs is very important for older people. After all, with age, it becomes more and more difficult to come up and down the high steps. The perfect height of steps for elderly people is 12-15 cm.
The convenience of stairs also depends on tactile sensations. For example, warm materials (like wood) are more comfortable than cold ones. Wooden elements of stairs don’t need to be covered with anything on top; however, they should be treated with impregnation and coated with varnish or paint.
Of course, there is nothing better than natural lighting of stairs, but you can also use the following artificial options:
- lighting of steps;
- sconces installed on the walls along the stairs.
It is advisable to finish the entire staircase structure to match the overall interior of the room and corridors on the floors. Such things as patterned carpets and high vases with flowers will make your stairs cozy. Moreover, these things are easy to replace or remove, which will allow you to change or refresh the whole interior with magical ease.
A high-quality staircase will emphasize the respectability of its owner, become the object of his/her pride and serve him/her for many years. Therefore, it is necessary to exert all efforts, opportunities and skills so that this important element of the house pleases even the most sophisticated owner with its aesthetics and brings only joy and comfort during operation.