Reinforced concrete structures have a broad scope of application. Ferroconcrete items are used for building the exterior steps of the porch and internal stairs. Concrete is resistant to the low temperatures. This articles deals with the requirements of GOST for the reinforced concrete steps and explains how to build the stairs for the house or porch with your own hands.
Reinforced concrete steps: main types
Prefabricated wooden steps are classified into:
- upper frieze;
- lower frieze.
In addition, concrete staircases made in accordance with GOST can’t do without platform inserts. Sometimes, they also require prefabricated flat steps for the through stairs. You can use overlays for the decoration. Concrete steps are often made with special details for fastening the handrails. Prefabricated ferroconcrete items are adapted for lifting clockwise (left-hand unit) or counterclockwise (right-hand unit).
When choosing the reinforced concrete steps, it is important to calculate their number. In this, you should consider the overlying details, as well as the size and price of all ferroconcrete items, including the upper and lower frieze steps with different size.
The concrete steps made according to GOST have a hole for fastening to the lower platform. When producing Ferroconcrete items for the stairs, you should use the high-quality concrete with good indicators of waterproof, durability and frost resistance. To enhance the appearance of staircase, the surface must be polished (or you should mount the overlying steps).
Arranging the monolithic reinforced structures that is more difficult than prefabricated ferroconcrete items. Optionally, you can perform the works in accordance with GOST. At first, you will have to calculate the parameters of stairs (including the size and price of materials) and prepare the drawing. Unlike when working with ready ferroconcrete items, you should take into account the following points:
- slope of stairs;
- number of steps (including the balanced steps, if any);
- size of treads and risers;
- length of staircase;
- width of staircase.
The inclination angles of 30-45 degrees is optimal for the porch or apartment building. To make the staircase as comfortable as possible, you should use even smaller range – from 30 to 35 degrees. Smaller angle is more suitable for the ramps, while higher values will make the rise tiresome.
Size of steps
To calculate the size of steps, you should know the mean pitch. Its length is 600-640 mm. While observing this value, the person will not fall off when going up or down the stairs. As to rise up a level, you need to overcome two risers and one tread. In total, their sizes must be 600-640 mm. Accordingly, you can create an equation and calculate the optimal values. For example, the porch steps have the width of tread= 300 mm and the height of riser of 150 mm.
The length of staircase
To calculate the size of staircase, you should fix the story height and length of staircase projection on the surface of staircase projection on the plane. You should square these values and sum them up. The root of amount received will be the required length of the staircase.
Number of steps
Knowing the height of lifting and size of riser, you can calculate the number of steps (together with the balanced ones). For this purpose, the fist value must be divided by the second one. Totals should be rounded to the nearest whole number.
Width of staircase
According to GOST 9818-85, minimum width of staircase must be 700 mm. To arrange the comfortable flight of stairs, this value must be within 900-1200 mm. Narrower staircases are usually mounted for attic or basement, while the wider reinforced concrete stairs are common in elite buildings or public institutions.
How to be when the space is limited?
If you don’t have enough free space to arrange the staircase with a comfortable angle, you have to resort to alternative options. The following options can be made by hand:
- L- or U-shaped configuration with intermediate platforms;
- turntable ladders with dancing steps;
- winding structure with balanced steps.
If you choose the structures with platform (and not with the balanced steps), they must have an interval of 12-15 steps. It will greatly facilitate the rise. If there is not enough space, the platform should be replaced with the turntable area with balanced steps. The width of tread in the narrowest place must be at least 120 mm.
Construction of the stairs with your own hands
After performing the calculations, considering the price, preparing the drawing, materials and overlying elements, you can get to work. The first stage is building a formwork for the concrete. For that purpose, you should use laminated water-resistant plywood, as it makes the surface smooth. However, as this material is very thin, you should fix it with boards and props to avoid deformation.
After preparing the pallet and flange of the future staircase, you should make a reinforcement. To that end, you must use the steel bars, whose ends should be mounted into the wall. Recommended diameter is 10 mm. The bars are located in the form of grid from the side of unit of 150 mm and tied with a wire.
After laying the reinforcement net, you should build a formwork for the steps. You can same the same veneer. Even though the price of decking is quite high, it can be dismantled without damage and reused. Transverse details shall be firmly secured to the flange and wall with metal angles to avoid their shifting under the pressure of concrete. It is also recommended to use additional props.
Reinforced concrete stairs: hand-made filling
Now, you can pour the solution into the formwork. You should make it in one go; therefore, it is better to rent the concrete mixer to prepare concrete. Besides, you can order the ready solution. However, in this case, the price will increase.
For the internal stairs, you should choose the brand of concrete called “M300”.
Filling of the staircase starts with the lower steps. After filling the bottom of the decking, you should make a punching or treat the surface with a vibrator (which is preferable). Such measures allow you to avoid the formation of voids in the material and increase the density of concrete. After that, the surface should be smoothed with trowel so that the ready step is smooth and to facilitate finishing of the concrete staircase with wood, tile, etc.
You should remove the formwork from the wall in three days, and the general– in three weeks. Then you can mount the overlying staircase elements. Labor intensity and price of manufacture are offset by the operational characteristics of monolithic concrete structures for the house or porch. Leave the comment with your own observations on how to build and serve the concrete stairs.